Split is a city in southern Croatia in the historic region of Dalmatia. Located in the central part of the Adriatic and is the center of a popular resort region. Split is one of the oldest cities in the country and the second most populous after Zagreb . It was built around the ancient palace of the Roman emperor Diocletian, who tried to find peace on the warm shores of the Adriatic after abdicating. The sights of Split are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and in the old town you can still see the remains of Roman walls, squares and temples.
Split is a bright port city, which is considered the capital of Dalmatia. The inhabitants themselves call it "the most beautiful city in the world" and "Mediterranean flower". It is located in a stunning bay between the mountains and the Adriatic Sea. The city was inhabited for 1700 years. It was inhabited by Romans, Croats, Hungarians, Venetians and Austrians, so it boasts a variety of architecture and the richest cultural heritage. Split has all the charm and richness of a modern Mediterranean city, but lives in a slow rhythm, which is very easy to get used to.
Geography and weather
Split is located in central Dalmatia in southern Croatia at the foot of Marjan Hill. The city is located on the peninsula of the same name and is surrounded by the islands of Brac, Hvar, Solta and Ciovo. The climate is warm subtropical. Summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and humid. The holiday season lasts from May to October.
History and interesting facts
During the Roman Empire on the territory of modern Split was the Roman province of Salona. The remains of a Roman city can be seen in the northwestern part of the historic center. It is believed that in the 3rd century AD, the future Roman emperor Diocletian was born here, who organized several reforms and brutally persecuted Christians. After resigning, he settled in a specially built palace and was buried there.
The city developed around the palace of Diocletian. In the 7th century Salona was destroyed by the Avars. At the end of this century, the Slavs came to the territory of Dalmatia. In the 12th century, Split recognized the power of the Hungarian king, while maintaining de facto independence until the early 15th century. In 1420, almost all of Dalmatia became part of Venice. Under Venetian rule, Split became one of the most important trading centers in the Adriatic. At the end of the 18th century, Dalmatia was conquered by Austria. Split belonged to the Habsburgs before the First World War.
During the First World War, Dalmatia was occupied by Italy . After the war, Split became part of Yugoslavia. In 1991, there were several armed clashes between Croats and Yugoslav army units, which did not cause significant damage to the historic center.
How to get there
Split Airport is located 25 km west of the city center and is one of the largest in Croatia. He connects it with most European capitals and major cities. Many flights are seasonal. The city center can be reached by bus from the airport. The train station is located almost in the center of Split. Although the popularity of trains is small, as well as the number of proposed destinations. There are bus connections with Zagreb , Dubrovnik , Rijeka, Sarajevo , Trieste and some cities in Austria and Germany. Three times a week from Split there is a ferry to Ancona and Pescara.
Food and drinks
Dalmatian cuisine is a mixture of Croatian cuisine with a strong influence of Mediterranean (Italian) cuisine. One of the most famous dishes of Split and Dalmatia is soparnik (vegetable pie). A very large number of dishes are based on fish and seafood. Popular foods are risotto, dalmatian pašticada s njokama (gnocchi), prosciutto (ham), cevapi (fried meat sausages). Dalmatia is also known for its world-class wines. In Split, we recommend trying local drinks called Pipi and Orela. Split at sunset
Diocletian's Palace is the main attraction of Split and a real symbol of the city. It is one of the best preserved ancient buildings of this type in Europe. The palace was built for the Roman emperor Diocletian in 305 AD. After resigning, the former emperor lived here for 8 years until his death. Together with the historic center of Split is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Virtually the entire historic center of Split was built around this ancient building. The palace has the shape of a rectangle, which is 190 meters long and about 160 meters wide. The building is divided by two streets (Cardo and Decumanus) into 4 parts. In the southern part of the palace was located Villa Diocletian with the main square called Peristyle, a mausoleum and two temples (round and hexagonal temple). The northern part of the palace was built as a typical Roman military camp.
The palace was surrounded by high walls, in the corners of which were towers. It had four gates: Gold, Silver, Bronze and Iron. This structure played a major role at the dawn of Split's education, protecting locals during wars and enemy raids. Now the Roman palace contains some Gothic and other rebuilt buildings, which are perfectly combined and do not look like foreign elements.
The Altar is one of the most important and beautiful parts of Diocletian's palace. Originally it was the courtyard of the former emperor's villa. Now here is the square. One of its main features is the columns. Most likely Diocletian did not rest here, but received guests and held events. On the west side of the courtyard he built three temples. The only one that has survived to this day is the temple of Jupiter.
Lobby of Diocletian's Palace is the entrance to the Ancient Palace is perfectly preserved. Interestingly, this building is rectangular on the outside and has a round structure inside. Ancient bricks are perfectly fitted, and there are many niches in the walls, which previously housed marble sculptures. It is not known exactly when the dome collapsed and what caused it to collapse. Now the dome is the sky. Archaeologists and historians believe that the walls and floors of the lobby were lined with marble slabs and intricate mosaics, and the dome was covered with amazing colored frescoes.
Split Cathedral (Church of St. Domnius) is the most popular attraction of Split. This ancient Catholic church was actually built in the 7th century on the mausoleum of Diocletian (interestingly, this Roman emperor considered Christians one of the threats of the empire and organized brutal persecution) and is considered the oldest still functioning cathedral in the world. Cathedral of St. Duima consists of two parts: the church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and the bell tower dedicated to St. Duima (Doua), who was the bishop of Salona (Roman capital of Dalmatia) in the 3rd century. He was executed by order of Diocletian and is considered the patron saint of the city.
Since its construction, this ancient temple has hardly changed. In the 11th century they began to build a 60-meter bell tower. It is believed that its construction took 300 years. The cathedral is built in the Corinthian style (many original Roman columns) and contains many ancient elements: the hexagonal Romanesque stone pulpit of the 13th century, the altar of St. Douai of the 15th century, the altar of St. Anastasia of the same period.
The Baptistery is a small ancient building near Peristyle Square. It is the only surviving Roman temple on the territory of Diocletian's Palace. The temple was dedicated to the god Jupiter. The Temple of Jupiter was built between 295 and 305 AD. In the 6th century it was converted into a Christian baptistery. Now this ancient building surrounds a maze of streets that make it easy to imagine how Split developed from Diocletian's Palace.